The main cause of blindness other than cataracts is glaucoma, around more than 5 million or 13.5% of the total blindness in the world is caused by this disease. But, nowadays has developed a medical marijuana that is believed to cure glaucoma. But it still has to be guided by a doctor and marijuana should be obtained from a licensed manufacturer, for example just like the licensed producers Canada.
Understanding of Glaucoma
Glaucoma is a disease of the eye in the form of a decrease in the field of view caused by an increase in pressure on the eyeball, causing damage to the nerves of the eye and causing blindness. This increased pressure in the eyeball is caused by an imbalance between the production and disposal of fluid in the eyeball. So that it damages the delicate neural networks that are in the retina and behind the eyeball.
Symptoms of Glaucoma
Glaucoma is divided into open-angle glaucoma and closed-angle glaucoma. In patients with acute glaucoma, symptoms will be felt such as:
- Looks like a rainbow (hello).
- The view drops suddenly.
- A Headache.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- And if it lasts long without immediate treatment, then the vision will get worse.
Risk Factors for Glaucoma
Hereditary factors play an important role in the occurrence of glaucoma. Someone with a family history of glaucoma tends to have a greater risk of suffering from this disease than people who have no history of glaucoma in the family.
There are also other risk factors that aggravate those over the age of 40 and those who have glasses either myopia or hypermetropia. If you see an eye doctor, tell your doctor that you have a family history of glaucoma. Thus, the doctor’s examination will be more directed.
Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, frequent migraines, a history of head injuries and a history of previous eye surgeries, as well as long-term users of steroid drugs, also turned out to be a risk factor for glaucoma. If you have a history of the disease accompanied by complaints of decreased vision, then immediately consult your eyes to the doctor.
Examination for Glaucoma
Examination needed for glaucoma sufferers is a sharp examination of vision, eye pressure (tonometer), examination of the front corner (gonioscopy), central nerve examination (ophthalmoscope) and visual field examination (Humprey visual field test), and examination of nerve fiber thickness (OCT).
Because glaucoma causes the optic nerve to be disrupted, a doctor’s examination will focus on that. The ophthalmologist will check the patient’s vision and inner structure of the eye. A procedure for checking eye pressure will also be performed. This procedure is called tonometry. The doctor will also perform a visual field test to check whether the patient’s peripheral vision has been reduced.
It is very important to see a doctor immediately if you experience a decrease in viewing power which may be caused by glaucoma. Eye damage caused by glaucoma cannot be treated, but the goal of treatment for this condition is to reduce intraocular pressure in the eye and prevent widespread damage to the eye.
Treatment of Glaucoma
The following are some of the ways in which glaucoma treatment is recommended by doctors:
- Eye drops
Generally, eye drops are often the first form of treatment for open-angle glaucoma recommended by a doctor. These drops are useful to facilitate the discharge of eye fluids and reduce production.
Some types of eye drop for glaucoma are:
- Beta-blocking drugs, such as timolol and levobunolol.
- Analog prostaglandin drugs, such as travoprost and bimatoprost.
- Carbonic anydrase inhibitors, such as dorzolamide and brinzolamide.
For a more maximal effect, the eye drops above can be combined to reduce the level of pressure in the eye.
Laser treatment can be applied in the treatment of open and closed angle glaucoma. In open-angle glaucoma, laser treatment can facilitate the flow of discharge of eye fluids, whereas, in closed-angle glaucoma, this procedure is able to eliminate fluid blockages. After a laser procedure, eye drops usually still need to be used.
The principle of treatment with the operation method is the same as laser treatment. The surgical procedure for glaucoma is performed if the drug is no longer able to reduce the pressure inside the eye. There are several types of glaucoma surgery, including trabeculectomy and aqueous shunt implants.
Trabeculectomy is the most common type of glaucoma surgery. This operation aims to facilitate the circulation of eye fluids by removing part of the trabecular webbing (tissue where the eye fluid comes out).
Whereas the aqueous shunt implant is an operating procedure that aims to improve the performance of eye fluid removal by installing a small device resembling a hose on the eye.